The Man and the Land, Lalo de Almeida

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Lalo studied photography at the Instituto Europeo di Design in Milan, Italy . He began working as a photojournalist for small agencies in Milan, covering Police work in the  city. Later, he worked for the Grazia Neri agency, covering domestic and international events such the war in the former Yugoslavia

Back in Brazil, he woked for the newspaper O Estado de S. Paulo, the weekly new magazine Veja and has worked for 16 years as a photographer for the newspaper Folha de São Paulo.

In addition to his work for the newspaper, he has also been working on documentary projects such “O Homem e a Terra” (“The Man and the Land”)  concerning traditional populations in Brazil, which was awarded the first prize in the International Biennial of Photography in Curitiba in 1996. He was nominated for the German Internationaler Preis fur Jungen Bildjournalismus in 2003 and won the  Fundação Conrado Wessel Award in 2007

He is the photographer of the book “Nas Asas do Correio Aéreo” (“Flying with the airmail service”) published in 2002.

In 2013, Lalo won the XII Marc Ferrez Award from the National Arts Foundation (FUNARTE) to prepare a project concerning the social impacts caused by the construction of the hydro-electric power plant of Belo Monte in the Xingu river.

Currently, in addition to contributing on a regular basis to the Folha de S. Paulo in the fields of photography and video, Lalo has been reporting, as of 2005, for The New York Times, in Brazil and in South America.

Lalo is based in São Paulo, Brazil, and is available for assignments.

Alexandre Severo

Foto: Alexandre Severo/JC Imagem
Data: 20/07/2009
Assunto: Familia de albinos da comunidade do V8, em Olinda

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Mona Khun

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Mona Kuhn is best known for her large-scale, dream-like photographs of the human form. Her work often reference classical themes with a light and insightful touch. Kuhn’s approach to her photography is unusual in that she usually develops close relationships with her subjects, resulting in images of remarkable naturalness and intimacy, and creating the effect of people naked but comfortable in their own skin. Kuhn was born in São Paulo, Brazil, in 1969, of German descent. She received her BA from The Ohio State University, before furthering her studies at the San Francisco Art Institute in 1996. She is currently an independent scholar at The Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles. Mona Kuhn’s work has been exhibited and/or included in the collections of The J.Paul Getty Museum, The George Eastman House, and others.

Rogério Reis

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Boris Kossoy

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Caesar Lima

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Born in São Paulo, Brazil with a Bachelor’s of Art in Advertising, Caesar Lima always had a passion and drive to go against the creative grain.  A self proclaimed non-conformist, he is a master at depicting original, never before seen, emotion invoking and captivating subject matters.
He thrives to do the “wrong thing”, yet possesses the extraordinary talent to transform them into the surreal, thought provoking, even beautiful.

Caesar welcomes and embraces technology as an endless tool to express himself creatively.
Gifted with a visionary eye to carry out ideas never before seen, Caesar boldly pushes limits and stays one step ahead with his innovative photography and design.

Migrations: Humanity in Transition, Sebastião Salgado

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Personally, I believe that people in the future will look back at this turning point and see it as a revolution experienced by mankind at this end-of-the-century, end-of-the-millennium historical period, this marking point of 2000 years of Christendom. This is a revolution that can be compared to the passage from the Middle Age to the modern age at the end of the fifteenth century. The scale of change is vast: For the first time in history, the majority of the planet’s population is dwelling in cities, and at the same time the concepts of borders and cultural distinctions have started to disappear.

At this time, I want to speak out for immigrants, for those who live in such circumstances, and to speak out to those who can receive them. I want to show the immigrants’ dignity in their willingness to integrate into another country, to show their courage and their entrepreneurial spirit and, not least, to demonstrate how they enrich us all with their individual differences. Above all, by using migration as an example, I want to show that a true human family can only be built on foundations of solidarity and sharing.
I know this story very well because it is my story. I made the same migrations that a great mass of the world’s population is doing now. I was born on a farm in Brazil. And when I was five, I moved with my family to a small town, about 10,000 people. Then when I was 15, I went to a medium-sized town, about 120,000 people. And when I finished college, it was necessary for me to go to a big big town, to São Paolo, and in São Paolo I had some political problems and the time came to leave Brazil and I came to France. That means this story that I’m photographing is my story also. I am a migrant, too.
I started to develop this project in 1992, I began photographing in 1993, and I finish now in 1999. So I have been photographing this project for six-and-a-half years. And I have traveled to about 47 different countries around the world where people are moving from place to place, and shot in more than 40
I have found this to be a story about the complete reorganization of humanity, the human family around the world. I have organized this large-scale documentation into six chapters.
First is International Migration….There were about 20 million international migrants in the mid-1980s; 50 million by the end of that decade; and more than 120 million today. News travels fast in our global village. The radio and television around the world portray the Western way of life; beautiful, rich and easy to achieve. In the most backward regions of the world, the poorest of the poor are convinced that somewhere over there, everybody leads that “ideal” life.
My exploration of international migration took me to photograph in several regions of the world, including the ex-USSR, where I followed the departure of Jewish peoples for the U.S.; the U.S.-Mexican border, where I photographed Latin Americans crossing over; Italy, where people from the Balkans and Asia attempt to enter Europe via the Adriatic Sea; Spain, a destination for Africans via the Straits of Gibraltar. Next is Refugees….The flow of refugees has also grown under the pressure of natural disasters and wars, which have been unprecedented in number since World War II. According to official estimates, there are currently 26 million refugees around the world, compared to 2.5 million 20 years ago. This figure includes neither unrecorded refugees — estimated to number six million — nor persons displaced inside their own countries, estimated at 32 million people.
Among the refugees I have photographed are: Bosnians, Vietnamese “boat people”, Afghanis, Kurds, Palestinians and Iranians. Third is The African Drama….For several decades now, Black Africa has fallen victim to a series of natural disasters and wars which have resulted in complete destabilization of economic and social life in most countries on the African continent. Furthermore, Black Africa has the highest birthrate in the world, the largest rate of demographic growth on the planet. In 1970, the population was 362 million people; in 1990 it was 642; and it is estimated that it will be 1.15 billion by the year 2010, indicating that demographic growth doubles every 20 years. By 2025, then, it is expected that Nigeria alone will have a population as large as the entire European community.
As a result of this combination of natural disasters, wars and demographic growth, Africa today is the unfortunate record holder in terms of numbers of refugees and displaced people. It is also unique in terms of violence.
Because of the scale of disaster that this enclave of humankind is experiencing, we decided to devote a specific chapter to them, with reportages including: voluntary repatriation to Mozambique of millions of refugees, after 15 years of war; Southern Sudan, with its displaced peoples worn down by war, drought and famine; the huge flow of Rwandan refugees to Tanzania and Burundi, and the conflicts within Rwanda; the appalling refugee camps in Goma, Zaire.
Next is Leaving the land for the cities….Between 40 and 50 million rural dwellers leave the land to go to the cities every year. The growth of migration within and between nations is inexhaustible. Because of  pressure on the land, over-exploitation of the soil and demographic growth, the Third World is at the core of the planet’s environmental crisis. In this part of the world, the environmental problem is weakening and erosion of the soil, which often provokes famine. Some 450 million Third World peasants cultivate land that is both low-yielding and declining in terms of quality. Millions are left without work or land.
This work is composed of the following stories: the struggle of the Brazilian landless peasants, who refuse to be corralled into urban centers; the hundreds of thousands of peasants who have been swallowed up by the diamond industry in India; the exodus of men from rural areas of Oaxaca and Guerrero, Mexico, leaving villages only inhabited by women and children; the leaving of the land by the Indians in the Chimborazo region of Ecuador; the tribes of southern Bihar in India, who want to protect their land against large mines and dams; the abandoning of their villages by million of peasants in China, due to the construction of the Three Gorge Dam; the last bushmen of Namibia and South Africa.
This trend is creating The planet’s new metropolises….Bombay, India; Djarkata, Indonesia; São Paolo, Brazil; Cairo, Egypt; Mexico City, Mexico; Bangkok, Thailand; and Shanghai, China.
Growth comes mainly due to exodus from rural areas. By the end of this century, eight of the planet’s ten largest metropolises will lie in the Third World, each of them with a population of more than 15 million. Thirty years ago, these cities had an average population of less than 5 million people.
These huge cities, with their belts of shantytowns, are more than ever an El Dorado in the eyes of jobless and landless rural workers. In the city, income is twice as high as in rural areas and drinkable water, schooling and doctors are more accessible.
The final piece of the project is Children Today: men and women of the new century.
When I was working in the displaced persons camps in Mozambique in 1994, I constantly found myself surrounded by groups of children who kept me from my work, always trying to be in the picture. So I made a deal with them: I would make a portrait of each of them, and in exchange they would let me be. I continued to do this every time I encountered the same problem.
Back in Paris while I was editing the work, I realized that I here I had a group of powerful portraits; that in front of my camera, I had had very young people who had lived experiences of great intensity already.
These seemingly simple and straightforward portraits depict with force their pain and their dignity. Here, I have a true sample of the men and women of tomorrow, on whom humankind must depend in order to build the future.
Through all these themes and chapters together, we tell the story.
This is the story I imagined in 1992, which is now completed…..We are living a globalization of humans. I believe this concept of border as we have had in the past, is now a relic of the eighteenth century. Now we are living in the moment close to the twenty-first century, where we are completely changing the concept of borders. In the European community, we have eliminated the border for goods. We eliminate the borders for information. We eliminate the borders for money. The border concept must change completely, and quickly to accommodate the reality of human movement.
The re-distribution of population is going on now, and happening very, very fast. And, when we speak about globalization, we must speak today about globalization of population now. This is happening now. From these photographs, we are preparing an international book, exhibition and a series of films.
What we are trying to do with all this is to provoke a debate, to provoke a discussion about the human condition today.
I want the person to come out of this show to see immigrants in a new way, with a new respect. I want the person in the United States who is sitting at a restaurant with a young man from El Salvador, from Mexico, serving him, I want that person to see through the pictures that it is a long, long trip to come there and sometimes very dangerous. This young man working in the restaurant had the courage to move himself, to fight for his dignity, to fight for a job. I want the American to see that all these people moving around are moving somewhere to work, to produce, to give something to the country in which they want to live. This is the spirit in which I have created these pictures, this book and this exhibition.

Tom Almeida

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Adriana Zehbrauskas

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Adriana was born in Sao Paulo, Brazil. She received a degree in Journalism and moved to Paris where she studied Linguistics and Phonetics at the Sorbonne Nouvelle. She worked as a staff photographer for Folha de S. Paulo, in Brazil, for 11 years, traveling extensively throughout the country and abroad..

As a free-lancer photojurnalist based in Mexico City, she contributes regularly with the New York Times. Other clients include the Wall Street Journal, The Sunday Times, Sunday Telegraph, Glamour Magazine, The Guardian, Paris Match, Le Figaro, Save the Children and the World Health Organization among others.

Adriana is  one of the three photographers  profiled in the documentary “Beyond Assignment” (USA, 2011), alongside Mariella Furrer and Gali Tibbon. The film was produced by The Knight Center for International Media and the University of Miami.and features the Tepito project.

Her project on Faith in Brazil and Mexico was awarded a Art & Worship World Prize by the Niavaran Artistic Creation Foundation and a book is currently under production to be published by Bei Editores in São Paulo, Brasil. She was a finalist for the New York Photo Awards 2009 and 2010 and is an instructor with the Foundry Photojournalism Workshops.

Her photos are  also featured in the books ’24 Stunden im Leben der katholischen Kirche’, Random House , Munich, 2005 , ‘In Search of Hope – The Global Diaries of Mariane Pearl’, powerHouse Books, New York, 2007 and the ‘Nike Human Race’ , New York, 2008.

Adriana is the recipient of the Troféu Mulher Imprensa (photojournalist newspaper/magazine), São Paulo, Brazil, Feb 2012

JONNE RORIZ

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AMAZONIA - NACIONAL OE - CADERNO ESPECIAL AMAZONIA - INDIOS - EXCLUSIVO - ESPECIAL - Materia especial sobre a Amazonia. FOTO JONNE RORIZ/AE

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AMAZONIA - 29/08/2007 - NACIONAL OE - CADERNO ESPECIAL AMAZONIA - INDIOS - EXCLUSIVO - ESPECIAL -

AMAZONIA - 29/08/2007 - NACIONAL OE - CADERNO ESPECIAL AMAZONIA - INDIOS - EXCLUSIVO - ESPECIAL -

Cena de destrui͋o apos o terremoto no bairro de Bel Air centro de Porto Principe - Haiti - 15/01/2010 - FOTO JONNE RORIZ/AE
Moradores da favela de Cite Soleil - Porto Principe - HAITI - 22/01/2010 FOTO JONNE RORIZ/AE

 

José Medeiros

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Thomaz Farkas

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Matheus Pena

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Gustavo Minas

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Sebastião Salgado

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Lunae Parracho

Munduruku Indian warriors search for illegal gold mines and miners in their territory near the Das Tropas river in western Para state
The Munduruku tribe in the Amazon searches for and expels illegal gold miners encroaching on their land.

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Gustavo Gomes

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Gustavo Gomes was born in Cassia, Minas Gerais, in 1981. Today he is a journalist and dedicated amateur photographer based in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and publishes his daily work at http://www.flickr.com/gustavominas. Gustavo studied photography for one year with Carlos Moreira, probably the most influential classic street photographer in Brazil. After that, he decided to dedicate himself to two never-ending projects: photographing the streets of Sao Paulo and Cassia, his hometown, in sunny early mornings or late afternoons. He is also a member of SelvaSP (selvasp.com), a recently launched collective of street photographers of Sao Paulo.

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All imperfect things, Pep Bonet

Transsexuals in Brazil by Pep Bonet / NOOR

Transsexuals in Brazil by Pep Bonet / NOORTransgender political activism in Brazil only began in the 1990s, as a result of the AIDS epidemic, in contrast to gay and lesbian mobilization for equal rights which dates back to the 1970s.
Transgender people have been less successful than gay men and lesbians in gaining any form of public acceptance and legal rights.

There are relatively few activist groups in Brazil that encompass the whole range of alternative sexualities and genders. Within these mixed groups, transsexuals tend to distinguish themselves from transvestites, hence the increasing use of the term “GLBTT”–Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transvestite, and Transsexual.

The dire political and social situation of transgender people in Brazil could gradually be alleviated if more transgender people qualified as doctors, lawyers, and other professionals. However, in addition to the discrimination that limits their education, most transvestites seem unwilling to make the sacrifices necessary to obtain higher education. They seem to believe that to do so would also mean sacrificing the most important years of their lives as beautiful women.

Unlike female sex workers, who have a range of professional options available to them, transgender sex workers often feel they have no options. Many see prostitution as the price they pay for choosing to transform. Moreover, whereas female sex workers have a wide range of options within the profession–the street, various types of nightclubs and brothels, advertising in newspapers and on the Internet–transvestites generally work the streets and low-end brothels, known as “privés.”

Transvestites’ clients are generally men who appear as being “straight” in society. Many, if not most, are married. Contrary to what one might expect, in the majority of instances, the transvestite sex worker performs the active role in sexual intercourse, the male client assuming the passive, receptive role.

In these instances, the cafetina functions as a parent figure, especially if, as is often the case, the transvestite has effectively been expelled from her family, usually at an early age. In these relationships, the cafetina is referred to as the Madrinha (Godmother) and the transvestite considers herself a filha (daughter).

Crucial to whether her transvestites will be guided towards or away from criminal behavior and drug abuse is the character and outlook of the cafetina.

Transvestites are often sent by cafetinas in the central, north, and northeastern state capitals to their counterparts in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro where they work the streets, take massive doses of hormones, and have their bodies transformed by silicone pumping, breast implants, and other plastic surgery. They are then sent on to other cafetinas based in Europe, principally Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, and Portugal.

The entire process of travelling to and working in Europe is organized by the cafetinas. The transvestite typically flies to a country that is not her final destination and then enters the final destination clandestinely. Thereafter, the Brazilian cafetina’s European counterpart arranges for accommodation and work, which, depending on the country or region may be on the street or in a brothel.

If the transvestite is unable to pay for the pumping, plastic surgery, and transport to Europe, she may be financed by the cafetinas. Effective interest rates vary, but they are always excessive.

Once the loans have been paid, the transvestite is free and is not tied to a particular cafetina structure. The transvestite who manages not to become addicted to narcotics or to be infected by HIV and to steer clear of violence stands a reasonable chance of returning to Brazil with enough money to purchase a house and a car. They frequently also send money to the same parents who rejected them.

Silicone pumping, by which buttocks, legs, and sometimes breasts and faces are transformed, is a staple of many transvestites’ lives,

AIDS experts believe that a significant hidden route of transmission of AIDS in Brazil is through transgender prostitution: the transvestite passes HIV to the client and the client in turn passes the virus to his wife or partner. In Brazil most new HIV infections occur in young gay and heterosexual couples.

Transgender prostitutes working the streets are routinely subject to violence from the police, clients, passers-by, and sometimes, from pimps. Such violence includes beatings, intimidation, torture, and shootings.

In some cases the violence is random and indiscriminate. Some groups of men consider it fun to beat up transvestites or conduct drive-by shootings. Similarly, some individual clients indulge in sadistic behaviour.

In Brazil, there are two kinds of pimps: male pimps, known as cafetões; and transvestite pimps, known as cafetinas. Cafetões are generally low-level drug dealers. Cafetinas run boarding houses for transvestites.

Especially in the major cities, all prostitutes who work the streets are required to pay a pimping fee. This is generally a fixed weekly fee that buys the right to work a particular area where the pimp in question has rights. In return for the fee, the pimp confers protection from harassment from other pimps and, in principle, from the police. Female sex workers pay the fee to cafetões. Transvestites pay the fee either to a cafetão or to a cafetina who has street rights.

Many transvestites live in houses run by cafetinas. The cafetina charges a daily fee for board and lodging.

Whereas the relationship between the sex worker and the cafetão is essentially based on fear and intimidation, the relationship between the sex worker and the cafetina is often quite different. In many cases the cafetina provides a significant level of guidance and emotional support, especially when the transvestite has moved from a distant region to the major cities of São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro.

Especially those who engage in sex work. Some transvestites become specialists, known as bombardeiras (pumpers), in pumping industrial silicone into the bodies of other transgender people.

There are a number of adverse effects of silicone pumping, including silicone dropping down into the ankles and feet, the immune system’s rejection of silicone, and the risk of silicone entering the bloodstream or vital organs.

Breast implants and facial surgery are generally performed by licensed (and also possibly unlicensed) plastic surgeons who specialize exclusively in attending transgender people.

The deep structural social problems faced by the poor in Brazil, combined with the isolation and discrimination encountered by transgender people, conspire against their attainment of the most basic human and legal rights.
There are a number of NGOs and federal, state, and municipal government agencies that offer various forms of advice and assistance to transgender people, mostly as part of STD/AIDS prevention and assistance programs

The combined effects of discrimination, humiliation, lack of education, and isolation from mainstream society place enormous emotional strain on Brazil’s transgender people, especially those who earn their living as sex workers.
The pressures to succumb to drug abuse and criminality are enormous, but transgender people are also especially vulnerable to contracting AIDS and to falling into cynicism and despair. Avoiding these pitfalls demands remarkable courage and strength of character.

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Felipe Dana

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